When it comes to exclusion, it always sounds like three main demographics are hit the most: women, native americans, and african americans (Today referred to as "People of color"). The US Constitution never recognized any of them, just "persons." Never was there any discriminatory evidence in the Constitution. But reading between the lines allows you to understand that there were many unwritten laws, or "common laws," present in the Constitution. This is how women have been excluded, though the wording cares to differ.
As the United States had roots in England, most English customs, including common law, were inherited as well. These well-accepted common laws were not gender-neutral. An example of a privilege reserved for the men would be participation in politics. Men were able to run for government positions such as senators and representatives, but women could not. Also, women had no real voice in voting because they couldn't vote. On the contrary, women counted as a full citizen and they were counted towards the total number of votes for the country. The problem was that they couldn't vote, only their husbands could. Unless she was able to convince her husband to vote for her side, women were silenced during elections.
And on that note, women did exist as individual people and not a fraction of a person. The only use of this is that the husband gets to count as another person as "her legal existence was bound up with that of her husband's." This was considered common knowledge at the time, and as it was legally recognized as so, it was common law! However, not all women were married. Some had husbands who had died, others had never gotten around to it. So what happens to them? As they weren't legally bound to a man, they certainly should have had more freedoms, right? Technically yes, but mostly no.
The Dower rights (Established by England, inherited as common law) were aimed to help single women by protecting their already low income and ability to own property. Additionally, it gave limited legal jobs to women where legally necessary, though very rare that women would work outside the house. But even at that, there were some restrictions as to how a woman could own property. If mentioned in her husband's will that she should inherit the property, only then can she become the owner. Unfortunately, the Dower rights were abolished in 1945 with only a few states keeping hold to versions of the Dower rights.